federal theology meaning
Deutsch. ii, 48-52; Porter's Comp. is Divinity, bk. abbreviation; word in meaning; location; Examples: NFL, NASA, PSP, HIPAA,random Word(s) in meaning: chat "global warming" Postal codes: USA: 81657, Canada: T5A 0A7. Federal Theology (Lat.faedus, a compact; adj. The word “federal” is from the Latin (foedus) meaning “covenant.” Although its proponents are committed to the basics of Reformed theology, and as such, it may be viewed as a subset within covenant theology, it’s not a monolithic movement and it contains within it a number of different theological emphases. Although the same word in the original languages of the Bible is applied to all covenants between God and man, the advocates of the federal system have translated them differently when applied on the one hand to the great covenants of nature and of grace, and on the other to the different economies under the covenant of grace. A controversy arose in Calvinist, Reformed, and Presbyterian circles in response to views expressed at a 2002 conference entitled The Federal Vision: … § 76, 113; Hopkins's System, i, 240-250; Mercersburg Review, 10:63; Kelly, On the Covenants; Jahrb. Such was the covenant of grace as formed in eternity. arts. His posterity fell under the imputation of his guilt, were destitute of original righteousness, and became corrupt in their whole nature. Theol. The apostle often speaks of. James Strong and John McClintock; Haper and Brothers; NY; 1880. Abbreviation to define. Only his first sin was thus imputed to them because the original covenant was broken by that alone, and Adam must afterwards have stood as a single person, and not as a public representative. the doctrine, as stated by its advocates; (II.) Leyden, 1704, and Compend of Theology, Berne, 1703) were the organic union of the three great tendencies of Scholasticism, Federalism, and Cartesianism, and have obtained general acceptance in the schools of Holland; and in those of F. A. Lampe, the pastor of several influential congregations and a professor in Utrecht (1720-27), whose doctrinal and practical works in the German vernacular have had the honor of reconciling Pietism to the orthodox Church, and have sometimes had a popularity scarcely inferior to the authorized Catechism of the national Church. At the two last national synods ever held in France (Charenton, in 1645, and Loudun, in 1659) the authors successfully defended themselves from the charge of heresy, and maintained that their views were only a more distinct statement of doctrines which had been universally held 'by the orthodox Church since primitive times, and especially by Augustine and Calvin; but a statement of opinions imputed to them (incorrectly, as they maintained) was condemned :at a synod at Charenton(1642), and the. Such an atonement is not merely hypothetical, but really opens the door of salvation to all men, who are supposed, even since the Fall, to possess all those faculties and powers which render them responsible for a compliance with the terms of salvation. These have been successive in their revelation to man, since the former was an arrangement before the Fall, and the latter was not made known until after that event; and yet the latter must have been agreed upon before all worlds, whereas the former could not have been formed until the creation of man; and some contend that those who refuse their consent to the covenant of grace must necessarily remain, even now, under the obligations and penalties of the covenant of works. Accessed 26 Dec. 2020. The United Presbyterian Church alone is said to maintain it, with some modifications connected with the theory of a general atonement (Wardlaw, On the Extent of the Atonement, § 13-15). 1665), he comprises all the doctrines of the Christian religion under the two great categories of the covenants of nature and of grace. It is generally conceded that the federal system had its origin with Kloppenburg, a professor of theology at Franeker (died in 1652). That is a succinct definition of the covenant of works. Federal Vision Theology is an unorthodox sect of Reformed Christianity. To constitute a natural ground for this headship, he was to become a man, uniting divinity in one person with humanity. Hence, when speaking of the communication of benefits to men, no mutual conditions are implied, but Jesus Christ is said to bequeath them by testament. 1. the doctrine, as stated by its advocates; (II.) Men are indeed to believe, to be holy, and to persevere faithfully unto the end, but all this is supposed to be secured by the free grace of God in Christ.'. To such an arrangement those who had been created in the image of God could do no otherwise than yield a cheerful assent, inasmuch as far higher blessings were proposed by it than by any merely legal relation. 15) teach that the Lord Jesus Christ came in this capacity and sustains this federal relationship to His people. in The Origins of the Federal Theology in Sixteenth-Century Reformation Thought. In this section of the site, the reader will find a number of works that hold a Christian view, Puritan view, a Reformed view, of the Regulative Principle, and some other important matters.. its history. Covenant theology (also known as covenantalism, federal theology, or federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall structure of the Bible. The latter was the aspect in which the covenant of grace has usually been presented icy its advocates. Dogm. He was to share with them in the actual curse which the first sin had brought on the human race, not shrinking even from death in its most terrific form. Not only was he, as a moral being, under obligation to conform to the law written upon his heart, and to obey the positive precept given to test his confidence in God, but eternal life was promised him on condition of his obedience. for 1868; L. Noack's Chr. For example, if you want explanation of the foedus operum in brief compass, go somewhere else. The result was a crude syncretism of an ideal or hypothetical Universalism with' a rigid and real Particularism. This fidelity to the scriptural representation compelled him to develop his system according to the successive periods of the sacred history (Ebrard, Dogmen. More than 250,000 words that aren't in our free dictionary, Expanded definitions, etymologies, and usage notes. Finally, the present economy of things shall cease, the dead shall be raised, the living shall be changed, every human being shall be judged at Christ's bar for sins, not only against God as a moral ruler, but against himself as the mediatorial king, and sentence shall be passed upon each according to his works. Theology. i, § 1). In 1660, STILLINGFL. II. No intellectual knowledge, or upright purposes, or pure affections could give the creature absolute immutability; and hence, with the highest and best gifts, man "being left to the freedom of his own will, fell from the estate in which he was created." Post the Definition of federal theology to Facebook, Share the Definition of federal theology on Twitter. The 2002 Auburn Avenue Pastors conference argued for a sort of retrieval. As we read of some who were chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world, it has been inferred that there must have been in eternity an agreement or covenant between the persons of the sacred Trinity, according to which a seed was given to the Son to serve him, and that he became their surety to satisfy the claims of justice upon them, to give them a title to eternal life, and to bring them to everlasting glory. III. xliii; Barnes, ,On the Atonement, chap. Federal theology holds that the Scriptures (see especially Rom. § 43; L. Noack's Christ. It has actually conferred innumerable benefits upon all men. d. chr. ch. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? The Christian dispensation is the ultimate form in which the covenant of grace will be administered; for, since all national restrictions have been removed, and the Holy Spirit is given in his plenitude, no other is conceivable. but they think it best never to attempt a, definition of them. Park's Discourses and Treatises by Edwards, Smalley, Maxey, Emmons, Griffin, Burge. How to use federate in a sentence. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? Weir does give a brief outline of the doctrine at the beginning of the book, but he focuses on: 1. 8:§ 10; bk. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Learn a new word every day. Essays, vol. To them alone is his perfect righteousness imputed, as if he had suffered and obeyed in their stead. The Hebrew בּרַית signifies undoubtedly in its primary meaning a mutual compact (Robinson's Gesenius's Lexicon), and yet it is not unfrequently applied to transactions in which such an idea in its strictness is impossible (Ge 9:9-18; Jer 33:20-21). Repeat. Recent articles contributing to our understanding of the meaning and relevance of federalism include Trinterud, L. J. Menu Search. Obviously it was not left to an uncertainty whether his work would be in vain or not. He thus becomes their surety, not merely to make them inherently holy, but to perform what is required of them. Federal Theology (Lat.faedus, a compact; adj. 1640s, as a theological term (in reference to "covenants" between God and man), from French fédéral, an adjective formed from Latin foedus (genitive foederis) "covenant, league, treaty, alliance," from PIE *bhoid-es-, suffixed form of root *bheidh-"to trust, confide, persuade.". This arbitrary assignment of the divine attributes, however, has never been acceptable. Christianshave no problem with Jesus representing us on the cross, but they often reject the idea of Adam representing us in the garden; but to reject one is to reject the other. The penalty for disobedience was death, corporeal, spiritual, and eternal, for each of these necessarily followed a forfeiture of a divine life. Source: McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia book module from SwordSearcher. As part of its research and teaching activities, EPFL is one of the only universities to run a nuclear reactor, a fusion reactor, a Gene/Q Supercomputer, and have P3 bio-hazard facilities. Learn more. bk. Along with the diversity of personalities associated with FV, the theological goals of FV differed according to these personalities. In his Seven Books upon the Truth of the Christian Religion, he endeavors to trace the economy of the covenant of grace to the several Persons of the sacred Trinity, by showing that the Father reveals himself, especially in the Old Testament, as the universal Ruler maintaining the cause of justice; the Son, especially during his life 'on earth, as the: Mediator dispensing mercy; and the Holy Ghost, especially since the day of Pentecost, as the Comforter exercising divine and saving power. They have supposed that God originally anticipated the temporary character of the covenant of works, and deter-mined upon another arrangement, by which a portion of mankind might be saved from the ruins of the apostasy. By His life He satisfied the precept of the law, and by His death He satisfied its penalty. The consequence was that all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, were henceforth to be treated as guilty and fallen creatures. § 74; Knapp's Christ. Without ascribing to this transaction the technicalities of a human compact, and conceding that the whole mode of viewing it is anthropomorphic, it is contended that something equivalent to this, and amounting to such a mutual understanding, must have existed in the sacred Trinity. The aim of the promoters of Federal Vision Theology is to pursue a re-interpretation of the established teachings of Reformed theology. The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. SEE AMYRAUT AND LA PLACE. As often occurs when great changes are introduced in formal statements of truth, this system was as bitterly opposed as if it had been an essential error. ii, 412). loc. Though the Redeemer had not, in fact, died before the earlier dispensation, he was looked upon as slain from the foundation of the world, and the dispensations of mercy were even then constituted in anticipation of his death. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples They had seen that Adam's original position was not that of a mere subject of law, but that promises had been made to him with a condition, and that the whole race were represented on a limited probation in him. The final cause of salvation he can indeed find nowhere else than in the divine mind, and he has no occasion to impinge against the highest style of contemporary orthodoxy, and yet he succeeded in giving to theology a more practical character. ii, ch. xxv; Schweitzer, Ref. that under the Old and that under the New Testament. Ordinarily there have been reckoned but two principal economies or dispensations, viz. The ordinary idea of a covenant, which is that of a mutual compact between one or more parties, each bound to render some benefit to the other, is obviously excluded by the nature of the case. It was begun by a professor by the name of Norman Shepherd, who taught systematic theology at Westminster. He was constituted the representative of his race, and a limited period was assigned him in which the destiny of all was to be decided. Quart. Redemp. Federate definition is - united in an alliance or federation : federated. Federal Vision Theology had its beginnings in the Monroe, Louisiana, Auburn Avenue Presbyterian Church in 2002 with the teachings of Norman Shepherd. The friends of the federal system allege that this as the only proper period of man's probation, since only then as his destiny dependent upon a contingency. Learn more. Thee natural relation might have been, and doubtless was, the reason for his being chosen to such an office, but the legal or covenant unity was constituted by the divine designation and choice. of the Cov. Although this is one of the most scientific and highly esteemed of the Calvinistic confessions, and is the only one among the Continental confessions which is constructed expressly upon the basis of the federal system, its authority has never been acknowledged in France, and it was received by only five of the Swiss cantons (and there mainly through the support of the civil magistrates), and finally lost all public sanction within fifty years from its promulgation (Ebrard's Christ. The orthodox Roman Catholics have always regarded it with aversion, and the Jansenists oppose the whole conception of a covenant with Adam as an innovation upon Augustinism, and needless to explain the natural effects of the first-sin (Father Paul's Hist. The first, however, who bad the genius and boldness to give definiteness and completeness to the system was John Koch (Cocceius), a pupil of his, and a successor in the same chair. It is not denied that by these expressions he usually meant the Mosaic or Sinaitic dispensation, in distinction from the evangelical, but, it is thought that such a dispensation could be designated a covenant of works only because it was a republication of a moral law to be a rule of conduct, but not a covenant of life, for a particular nation. (C. The difficulties, however, with which the system was pressed by its opponents were sought to be removed by Hermann Witsius, a successor and former pupil of Burmann in the theological chair of the University of Utrecht. This isn't salvation without works. The orthodox Congregationalists and the New-school Presbyterians of the United States usually object to the phrase "universal redemption" as used by the Amyraldists of France, the Baxterians of England, and the Arminians generally, inasmuch as the word redemption properly signifies more than what is obtained simply by the expiatory work of Christ, and includes an entire deliverance from sin. Federal Theology Monday, May 23, 2011. The contrast and resemblance which Paul also draws between the first and the second Adam (Ro 5:12-21; 1Co 15:45) would seem to have no meaning without the understanding of a covenant with our great progenitor. One s-may conceive of the whole race as fallen, and then of a scheme of mercy which provides first a door of mercy sufficiently open for all mankind to enter, and finally a a system of means which should secure the actual salvation of a limited number; or he may conceive of the eye of God being fixed first -upon a limited number of our fallen race, and for their sake alone providing an atonement sufficient indeed for all men, but designed and efficient for the salvation of only a definite number. Adapted to all, and sufficient for all as his work may be, it must have been specially designed to effect the salvation only of the covenant people. Conditions, in the proper sense of the word, on the part of God's people, are not required, but benefits are supposed to be bestowed absolutely, by free donation, and by an irrevocable will. The rival theological schools of Saumur and Montauban zealously adopted the federal system. § 74; Shedd's Hist. This result was not the effect of any action on God's part either positive or privative, but in the exercise of man's-own freedom. FV is defined as Federal Vision (theology) very frequently. God has encouraged no expectation of salvation by an obedience to the law, for, even if such an obedience were possible, no one has ever realized it, and God has provided no promises for a merely hypothetical case. But confessedly all are not made partakers of salvation, and only a portion of men were eternally given to Christ by the Father. From Adam to Moses, even before the Law was given, “death … (1662) 91. There was a reason on account of which he was thus chosen to act in their stead. History. federalis), a method of stating divine truth, according to which all the doctrines of religion are arranged under the heads of certain covenants God has made with men. P.'W.). The covenant of grace is that glorious scheme of wisdom and goodness bye which eternal life and salvation have been provided for men in a way of free grace and mercy. As a representative, he was in no sense numerically one and the same with those he represents, for no one can represent himself. Christ will claim the right to do this even with respect to such as are not under his spiritual headship, inasmuch as they too are in one sense purchased by him (2Pe 2:1), and hence power over all flesh has been given him by the Father (Joh 17:2). of Doctr. The Holy Spirit, who must also be looked upon as having a part in this covenant, also engaged to become the efficient agent in the regeneration, sanctification, and glorification of the holy seed. With a true sense of its usage and idea, if not strictly according to its etymological signification, the LXX have translated this word by the Greek διαθήκη, the generic meaning of which is a disposition or arrangement, and lapses into the idea of a mutual compact or testament only when the author or authors of it happened to be mutual stipulators or testators. This whole system was strenuously opposed by the elder Spanheim, of Geneva and Leyden; J. H. Heidegger, of Zurich; and Francis Turretin, of Geneva. English federal comes from the Latin noun foedus (stem foeder- ) “a formal agreement between states, peoples, or private persons, a league, treaty (of alliance or peace), a marriage compact.”. We set forth (I.) But not salvation by our works ! and Weeks, on the Atonement; Neander, Dogmengesch. Federal theology represents these requirements as being met in Christ, the second Adam, in whom a new race begins. What made you want to look up federal theology? of the Council of Trent, p. 177-201; Jansenius, August. Federal Theology. But as man was under condemnation, and could not therefore act for himself, the Son of God acted in behalf of all of whom he was to be the spiritual head. ii, chap. Think about it. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools "AcronymFinder.com . federal definition: 1. relating to the central government, and not to the government of a region, of some countries…. I. Doctrine. Negatively they contend that the favored ones could have had no pre-eminence in natural goodness, since many of them confess themselves to be the chief of sinners. As the covenant of works was made with Adam and his posterity in him and led to the condemnation of his race, so the covenant of … Ever since that event, if any are saved it must be by an unconditional grant through Jesus Christ. Many have thought that before the Fall they were endowed wit-b such supernatural gifts as secured to them the possession of their original righteousness; but, as nothing is said of these in the sacred history, and as they appeared to many inconsistent with the possibility of man's fall, most writers contend that the divine image consisted wholly in the knowledge and moral excellence which Adam had within himself. AND FEDERAL THEOLOGY Richard C. Barcellos* Much has been written in the last few decades concerning the reassessment or reappraisal of seventeenth-century Reformed orthodoxy.1 Older scholarship viewed the Seventeenth Century as a period of downward movement, increasingly tending toward rationalism and proof-texting, driven by a central-dogma (i.e., the decree of predestination), … Among the orthodox dissenters of England it has also been accepted, and found some of, its most able defenders. Though the Heidelberg Catechism was composed before the federal theory was distinctly broached, most of the great commentaries which have been written upon it were written by Federalists. theology meaning: 1. the study of religion and religious belief 2. a set of beliefs about a particular religion 3…. But the obedience required of him as the federal head of his people was more than the mere equivalent of that required of Adam. It is sometimes distinguished from the covenant of redemption, in as much as the latter phrase may be confined to the arrangement in eternity between the persons of the Trinity, and the former to the engagement into which God enters in time with believers. Dogmengesch. v, iii, and xiv; A. Fuller's Gospel, etc., in Works, i, 312-340, vol. We set forth (I.) But, whether he demits his peculiar office (1Co 15:28), or only brings his mediatorial kingdom into some new relation, he will then complete the scheme of the covenant of grace, and receive his eternally betrothed Church into an everlasting union with himself. iii, bk. Unfortunately, Christians have their own “lingo”. The whole race sinned in Adam and fell with his-a not because of any confusion of personal or moral identity, not because of any transference of character from one man to another but simply because all were represented in him. That all mankind descending from him by covenant and it was with an ultimate reference to these he... Works, i, 312-340, vol FV, the theological concept of a systematic theology Westminster. Man, uniting divinity in one person with humanity Software LLC essentials of a covenant compact... ; Buck 's, and Ecclesiastical Literature history rather than theology equivalent of that required of them is historical,... Is definitely on history rather than theology 's Catechisms ; Hagenbach 's Hist economies or dispensations viz... That which Adam was placed by his Maker words are common words among Christians has never been acceptable he became. Relationship to his people this capacity and sustains this federal relationship to natural... Vincenst 's and Fisher 's Catechisms ; Hagenbach 's Hist him by covenant it. Works, and he has power over all flesh, in works, i, 312-340,.! Alliance or federation: federated 's part in vain or not of Trent, p. 177-201 ; Jansenius,.. ) s: FAITH. as well as related to the government of a covenant compact... Through Jesus Christ will continue to administer it until the whole human race, Meaning was..., sanctification, and Ecclesiastical Literature God in his right of a region, of its. Their hopes bounded by promises of an earthly home the materials of a sovereign ruler (.! Because he was to act in their whole nature § 7-10, p. 177-201 Jansenius. 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